International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2012 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Objective Assessment of Implants Stability placed in Fresh Extraction Socket using Periotest Device

Manoj Goyal, Gurjap Singh Saini

Citation Information : Goyal M, Saini GS. Objective Assessment of Implants Stability placed in Fresh Extraction Socket using Periotest Device. Int J Oral Implantol Clin Res 2012; 3 (2):67-70.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10012-1069

License: CC BY-ND 4.0

Published Online: 01-08-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Objective: To present our experience of using periotest (PT) device for measuring implant stability in immediate implants placed in fresh extraction sockets. Materials and methods: We used a PT device to measure for 10 implants placed in 10 patients over a period of 18 months. All the implants were placed immediately after extraction. The minimum follow-up period was 6 months with PT readings taken at 4th, 5th and 6th months (stage I) and after restoration at 7th, 8th and 9th months. Results: Negative values are generally considered good. This means the implant is well osseointegrated and can be loaded. The PT values for the maxillary tooth were lower than those for the mandibular tooth. A stable mandibular implant presents PT value readings between –2 and +2. A stable maxillary implant presents PT value reading between –4 and –2. Conclusion: PT enables us to assess osseointegration noninvasively and objectively in any situation. PT helps us to optimize our decision whether or not an implant is ready for functional loading.


PDF Share
  1. Krump JL, Barnett BG. The immediate implant. A treatment alternative. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1991;6:19-23.
  2. Schulte W. A new field of application method. The occlusalperiodontal load can now be measured quantitatively. Zahnarztl Mitt 1988;78(5):1-11.
  3. d’Hoedt, Schulte W Quante. The periotest research and clinical trials. Dtsch Zahnarztl 1985;40;113-25.
  4. Schulte W. Das Periotestverfahren. Dtsch Zahnarztl Kalender 1989;107-26.
  5. Johansson D, Albrektsson T. Integration of screw implants in the rabbit: A 1 year follow-up of removal torque of titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1987;2:69-75.
  6. Oline J Appricoc. The periotest method as a measure of osseointegrated oral implants stability. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1990;5:390-400.
  7. Narby B, Kronstrom M, Soderfeldt B. Prosthodontics and patient: Part II: Need becoming demand, demand becoming utilization. Int J Prosthodont 2007;20:183-89.
  8. Slade GD, Locker D, Wu ASM, Dunkley G. The oral health, status and treatment needs of adult aged 65 living independently in Ottawa- Carleton. Can J Public Health 1990;81:114-19.
  9. Choudhary R, Mankani N, Chandraker NK. Awareness of dental implants as a treatment choice in urban Indian populations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010; 25(2):305-08.
  10. Ruga E, Gallesio C, Chiusa L, Boffano P. Clinical and histologic outcomes of calcium sulfate in the treatment of postextraction sockets. J Craniofac Surg 2011;22(2):494-98.
  11. Guarnieri R, Pecora G, Fini M, Aldini NN, Giardino R, Orsini G, Piattelli A. Medical grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate in healing of human extraction sockets: Clinical and histological observations at 3 months. J Periodontol 2004;75(6):902-08.
  12. Park YB, Mohan K, Al-Sanousi A, Almaghrabi B, Genco RJ, Swihart MT, Dziak R. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline calcium sulfate for use in osseous regeneration. Biomed Mater Aug 26 2011;6(5):055007 [Epub ahead of print].
  13. Pietrokovski J, Massler M. Alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction. J Prosthet Dent 1967;17(1):21-27.
  14. Lam RV. Contour changes of the alveolar processes following extractions. J Prosthet Dent 1960;10:25-32.
  15. Schropp L, Wenzel A, Kostopoulos L, Karring T. Bone healing and soft tissue contour changes following single-tooth extraction: A clinical and radiographic 12-month prospective study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2003;23(4):313-23.
  16. Artzi Z, Tal H, Dayan D. Porous bovine bone mineral in healing of human extraction sockets (Part 1): Histomorphometric evaluations at 9 months. J Periodontol 2000;71(6):1015-23.
  17. Gross JS. Bone grafting materials for dental applications. A practical guide. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1997;18:1013-24.
  18. Lekovic V, Camargo PM, Klokkevold PR, et al. Preservation of alveolar bone in extraction sockets using bio-absorbable membranes. J Periodontol 1998;69:1044-49.
  19. Melo LG, Nagata MJ, Bosco AF, Ribeiro LL, Leite CM. Bone healing in surgically created defects treated with either bioactive glass particles, a calcium sulfate barrier, or a combination of both materials. A histological and histometric study in rat tibias. Clin Oral Implants Res 2005;16(6):683-91.
  20. Orsini M, Orsini G, Benlloch D, Aranda JJ, Lazaro P, Sanz M, De Luca M, Piattelli A. Comparison of calcium sulfate and autogenous bone graft to bioabsorbable membranes plus autogenous bone graft in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: A split-mouth study. J Periodontol 2001;72(3):296-302.
  21. Nagata M, Nagaoka S, Mukunoki O. The efficacy of modular transitional implants placed simultaneously with implant fixtures. Compend Contin Educ Dent Jan 1999;20(1):39-42,44; quiz 46.
  22. van Steenberghe D, Naert I. A custom template and definitive prosthesis allowing immediate implant loading in the maxilla. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants Sep-Oct 2002;17(5):663-70.
  23. Schlee, Markus, Steigmann, Marius Dr. medic stom, Bratu, Emanuel, Garg, Arun K. Piezosurgery: Basics and possibilities. Implant Dentistry Dec 2006;15(4):334-40.
  24. Sohn DS. Piezoelectric ridge splitting. Dent Success 2003;11:1323-28.
  25. Quirynen M, Van Steenberghe D. Bacterial colonization of the internal part of two-stage implants: An in vivo study. Clin Oral Impl Res 1994;5:239.
  26. Proff P, Steinmetz I, Bayerlein T, Dietze S, Fanghänel J, Gedrange T. Bacterial colonization of interior implant threads with and without sealing. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2006;65: 75-77.
  27. King GN, Hermann JS, Schoolfield JD, et al. Influence of the size of microgap on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded nonsubmerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol 2001;72: 1372-83.
  28. Leonhardt A, Olsson J, Dahlén G. Bacterial colonization on titanium, hydroxyapatite, and amalgam surfaces in vivo. J Dent Res 1995;74:1607.
  29. Tanner A, Maiden MJF, Lee k, Shulman LB, Weber HP. Dental implant infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997;25(2): S213-17.
  30. Bollen CM, Papaioanno W, Van Eldere J, Schepers E, Quirynen M, van Steenberghe D. The influence of abutment surface roughness on plaque accumulation and peri-implant mucositis. Clin Oral Implants Res 1996;7:201-11.
  31. Rimondini L, Cerroni L, Carrassi A, Torricelli P. Bacterial colonization of zirconia ceramic surfaces: An in vitro and in vivo study Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002;17:793-98.
  32. Scarano A, Piattelli M, Caputi S, Favero GA, Piattelli A. Bacterial adhesion on commercially pure titanium and zirconium oxide disks: An in vivo human study. J Periodontol 2004;75: 292-96.
  33. Scotti R, Kantorski KZ, Monaco C, Valandro LF, Ciocca L, Bottino MA. SEM evaluation of in situ early bacterial colonization on a Y-TZP ceramic: A pilot study. Int J Prosthodont 2007;20:419-22.
  34. Meier R, Hauser-Gerspach I, Lüthy H, Meyer J. Adhesion of oral streptococci to all-ceramics dental restorative materials in vitro. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2008;19:3249-53.
  35. Rosentritt M, Behr M, Burgers R, Feilzer AJ, Hahnel S. In vitro adherence of oral streptococci to zirconia core and veneering glass-ceramics. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2009;91:257-63.
  36. Glauser R, Sailer I, Wohlwend A, Studer S, Schibli M, Schärer P. Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single- tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: Four-year results of a prospective clinical study. Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:285-90.
  37. Canullo L. Clinical outcome study of customized zirconia abutments for single-implant restorations. Int J Prosthodont 2007;20:489-93.
  38. Zembic A, Sailer I, Jung RE, Hämmerle CH. Randomizedcontrolled clinical trial of customized zirconia and titanium implant abutments for single-tooth implants in canine and posterior regions: Three-year results. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20:802-08.
  39. Beck TM, Mealey BL. Histologic analysis of healing after tooth extraction with ridge preservation using mineralized human bone allograft. J Periodontol Dec 2010;81(12):1765-72.
  40. Carmagnola D, Berglundh T, Araújo M, Albrektsson T, Lindhe J. Bone healing around implants placed in a jaw defect augmented with Bio-Oss. An experimental study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol Nov 2000;27(11):799-805.
  41. Artzi Z, Tal H, Dayan D. Porous bovine bone mineral in healing of human extraction sockets. Part 1: Histomorphometric evaluations at 9 months. J Periodontol 2000;71:1015-23.
  42. Allegrini S Jr, Koening B Jr, Allegrini MR, Yoshimoto M, Gedrange T, Fanghaenel J, Lipski M. Alveolar ridge sockets preservation with bone grafting-review. Ann Acad Med Stetin 2008;54(1):70-81.
  43. Guarnieri R, Aldini NN, et al. Medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (surgiplaster) in healing of a human extraction socket-histologic observation at 3 months: A case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20(4):636-41.
  44. Fiorellini JP, Nevins ML. Localized ridge augmentation/ preservation. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol 2003; 8(1):321-27.
  45. Misch CE. Contemporary implant dentistry (2nd ed). St Louis: Mosby Inc. 1999;462.
  46. Kim YK, Yun PY, Lee HJ, Ahn JY, Kim SG. Ridge preservation of the molar extraction socket using collagen sponge and xenogenic bone grafts. Implant Dent Aug 2011;20(4):267-72.
  47. Len Tolstunov, Jibin Chi. Alveolar ridge augmentation: comparison of two socket graft materials in implant cases. Compend Cont Edu, March 2011;32(2).
  48. Brunski JB. Forces on dental implants and interfacial stress transfer. In: Laney WR, Tolman DE (Eds). Tissue Integration in Oral, Orthopaedic and Maxillofacial Reconstruction. Chicago: Quintessence 1992:108-24.
  49. Brunski JB. Avoiding pitfalls in overloading and micromotions of intraosseous implants (Interview). Dent Implantol Update 1993;4(10):77-81.
  50. Tarnow D, Elian N, Fletcher P, et al. Vertical distance from the crest of bone to the height of the interproximal papilla between adjacent implants. J Periodontol 2003;74:1785-88.
  51. Ericsson J, Persson LG. Different types of implant-associated reactions in periodontal soft tissues. J Clin Periodont 1995; 22:255-61.
  52. Steinebrunner L, Wolfart S. In vitro evaluation of bacterial leakage along the implant of different implant abutment interface of different implant systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:875-81.
  53. Engelke W, Decco OA. In vitro evaluation of horizontal implant micromovement in bone specimen with contact endoscopy. Implant Dent 2004;13:88-94.
  54. Hermann J, Buser D, Schenk RK, Schoolfield JD. Influence of the size of the microgap on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged implants in canine mandible. J Periodontol 2001;72:1372-83.
  55. Hermann JS, Buser D, Schenk RK, et al. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Peridontol 2000;71:1412-24.
  56. Wohrle PS. Nobel perfect esthetic scalloped implant: Rationale for a new design. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2003;5:64-73.
  57. Nentwig GH. Ankylos implant system: Concept and clinical application. J Oral Implantol 2004;30:171-77.
  58. Gardener D. Maintaining crestal bone around dental implants: Literature review and clinical technique. Dentistry Today 2006.
  59. Tonetti MS, Sanz M. Consensus report of session B. In: Lang N, Karring T, Lindhe J. Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. Berlin: Quintessence 1999:185-88.
  60. Huang MT, Ho CT, Wang ZY, Ferraro T, Lou YR, Stauber K, Ma W, Georgiadis C, Laskin JD, Conney AH. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer Res. 1994 Feb;54(3):701-708.
  61. Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Souza MG, Silva ML, Filho AA, Martins CH, Crotti AE, Pauletti PM, Groppo M, et al. Antimicrobial activity of tosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol. Chem Biodivers 2010 Jul;7(7):1835-1840.
  62. Parolia A, Thomas MS, Kundabala M, Mohan M. Propolis and its potential uses in oral health. Int J Med Sci 2010 Jul;2(7): 210-215.
  63. Oncag O, Cogulu D, Uzel A, Sorkun K. Efficacy of propolis as an intracanal medicament against Enerococcus faecalis. Gen Dent 2006 Sep-Oct:54(5):319-322.
  64. Martin MP, Pileggi R. A quantitative analysis of propolis: a promising new storage media following avulsion. Dent Traumatol 2004 Apr:20(2):85-89.
  65. Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, Gonzalez R, Tolon Z. Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1989 Feb;25(1):103-107.
  66. Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Schiavini MS, Nakamura CV, Filho BPD. An evaluation of antibacterial activities of Psidium guajava. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2005 May;48(3):4229-4230.
  67. Sanda KA, Grema HA, Geidam YA, Bukar-Kolo YM. Pharmacological aspects of Psidium guajava: an update. Int J Pharmacol 2011 May;7:316-324.
  68. Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS. Punica grantum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6(2):79-92.
  69. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, Pereira Mdo S, Higino JS, Peixoto MH. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of punica granatum linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C albicans. Braz Dent J 2006;17(3): 223-227.
  70. Prasad D, Kunnaiah R. Punica granatum: a review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014 Jul;18(4):428-432.
  71. Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Baissac Y, Ribes G. Chemistry and pharmacology of fenugreek. In: Herbs, botanicals and teas. Mazza G, Oomah BD, editors. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Technomic Pub. Co; 2000. p. 107-129.
  72. Acharya SN, Basu SK, Thomas JE. Methods for the improvement of plant medicinal properties with particular reference to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: Acharya SN, Thomas JE, editors. Advances in medicinal plant research. Kerala, India: Research Signpost; 2007b p. 491-412.
  73. Al-Habori M, Raman A. Pharmacological properties in fenugreek. - In: Petropoulos GA, editor. The genus trigonella. 1st ed. London and New York: Taylor and Francis 2002. p. 163-182.
  74. Saini P, Al-Shibani N, Sun J, Zhang W, Song F, Gregson KS, Windsor LJ. Effects of calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts. Homeopathy 2012 Apr;101(2):92-98.
  75. Khairnar MS, Pawar B, Marawar PPA. Evaluation of calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013 Nov-Dec;17(6):741-747.
  76. Chakraborthy GS. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of calendula officinalis Linn. J Herb Med Toxicol 2008 Jun;2(2):65–66.
  77. Zilda CG, Claudia MR, Sandra RF. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from calendula officinalis L growing in Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2008;39(1):61-63.
  78. Bussadori SK, Castro LC, Galvão AC. Papain gel: a new chemo-mechanical caries removal agent. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005 Winter;30(2):115-119.
  79. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
  80. Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
  81. Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
  82. Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
  83. Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.