Felines are obligate carnivores and use their teeth for prehending as well as tearing and dissecting their food. Mastication is the first step of digestion, aiding in the lubrication of the food and the formation of a bolus. Mastication also increases the surface area of the food to be initially digested by salivary enzymes before being more easily swallowed. The teeth are specialized structures which play an important role in mastication, grooming, supporting the lips and the tongue, as well as being used as weapons for hunting and for self-defense. Although some mammals can still survive with few or no teeth at all, cats included, losing teeth can influence the types of foods that can be eaten, and will affect the ability to masticate and processing of the food prior to swallowing.
Dental Implants have become an option for replacement of lost canines in these animals. Although cats appear to manage well after a canine extraction, complications such as lip entrapment can occur, especially after maxillary canine tooth extraction. Even cats with a complicated crown fracture of the maxillary canine tooth that have had root canal therapy to preserve the tooth, can still suffer from lip entrapment. This can lead to painful lip ulcers and the need for further dental treatment. Today, canine tooth replacement with a dental implant/crown is a predictable option that can be offered to clients who would like to replace a lost canine tooth. This report will discuss two long term cases of lost maxillary canines and replacement by dental implant/crowns.
Polizzi P, Runder U, Goené R, Hatano N, Henry P, Jackson WJ, Kawamura K, Renouard F, Rosenberg R, Triplett G, et al. Immediate and delayed implant placement into extraction sockets: a five year report. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2000 Apr;2(2):93-99.
Rosa JCM, Rosa ACPO, Franischone CE, Sotto-Maior BS. Diameter selection of implants placed in extraction sockets: a new approach. Dent Pres Implantol 2014 Apr-June:8(2): 80-89.
Rosa JCM, Rosa ACPO, Franischone CE, Sotto-Maior BS. Esthetic outcomes and tissue stability of implant placement in compromised sockets following immediate dentoalveolar restoration: results of a perspective case series at 58 month follow-up. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2014 Mar-Apr; 34(2):199-208.
Capelli M, Testori T, Galli F, Zuffetti F, Motroni A, Weinstein R, Del Fabbro M. Implant-buccal plate distance as diagnostic parameter: a perspective cohort study on implant placement in fresh socket sites. J Periodontal 2013 Dec;84(12):1768-1774.
Rieder CE. Customized implant abutment copings to achieve biologic mechanical and esthetic objectives. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1996 Feb;16(1):21-29.
Chiche FA, Leriche MA. Multidisciplinary implant dentistry for the improved aesthetics and function. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent 1998 Mar;10(2):177-186.
Champy M, Lodde JP, Kahn JL, Kielwasser P. Attempt at systematization in the treatment of isolated fractures of the zygomatic bone: techniques and results. J Otolaryngol 1986 Feb;15(1):39-43.
Melsen B, Petersen JK, Costa A. Zygoma ligatures: an alternative form of maxillary anchorage. J Clin Orthod 1998 Mar;32(3): 154-158.
Izzo SR, Berger JR, Joseph AC, Lazow SK. Reconstruction after total maxillectomy using an implant-retained prosthesis: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1994 Sep;9(5): 593-595.
Van Steenberghe D, Malevez C, Van Cleynenbreugel J, Bou Serhal C, Dhoore E, Schutyser F, Suetens P, Jacobs R. Accuracy of drilling guides for transfer from three-dimensional CT-based planning to placement of zygoma implants in human cadavers. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003 Feb;14(1):131-136.
Higuchi KW. The zygomaticus fixture: an alternative approach for implant anchorage in the posterior maxilla. Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg 2000 Oct;15:28-33.
Becktor JP, Isaksson S, Abrahamsson P, Sennerby L. Evaluation of 31 Zygomatic implants and 74 regular dental implants used in 16 patients for prosthetic reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla with cross-arch fixed bridges. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2005;7(3):159-165.
Al-Nawas B, Wegener J, Bender C, Wagner W. Critical soft tissue parameters of the zygomatic implant. J Clin Periodontol 2004 Jul;31(7):497-500.
Aparicio C, Ouazzani W, Hatano N. The use of zygomatic implants for prosthetic rehabilitation of the severely resorbed maxilla. Periodontol 2000 2008;47:162-171.
Aparicio C, Ouazzani W, Aparicio A, et al. Extrasinus zygomatic implants: three year experience from a new surgical approach for patients with pronounced buccal concavities in the edentulous maxilla. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010;12(1): 55-61.
Ouazzani W, Arévalo X, Caro L, Codesal M, Fortes V, Franch M, Lundgren S, Muela X, Sennerby L, Aparicio C. Zygomatic implants: new surgery approach (Abstract). J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:126.
Schiroli G, Angiero F, Silvestrini-Biavati A, Benedicenti S. Zygomatic implant placement with flapless computer-guided surgery: a proposed clinical protocol. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Dec;69(12):2979-2989.
Sanivaraka S, Dwarakanath CD, Ramesh AV. Immediate implant placement following tooth extraction: a clinical and
Int J Oral Implant Clin Res 2010 May-Aug;1(2):67-76.
Hassan KS, Alagl AS. Immediate dental implants and bone graft. In implant dentistry – the most promising discipline of dentistry 2011 Sep:78-89.
Del Corso M. Choukroun's platelet rich fibrin as the sole grafting material: a radiological and histologic study at 6 months. J Periodontal 2012;80(12):2256-2264.
Wa CL. Efficacy of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) membrane in immediate dental implant. Mansoura J Dent 2014;1(3):78-84.
Covani U, Crespi R, Cornelini R, Barone A. Immediate implants supporting single crown restoration: a 4-year prospective study. J Periodontol 2004 Jul;75(7):982-988.
Schwartz-Arad D, Yaniv Y, Levin L, Kaffe I. A radiographic evaluation of cervical bone loss associated with immediate and delayed implants placed for fixed restorations in edentulous jaws. J Periodontol 2004 May;75(5):652-657.
Chen ST, Wilson TG Jr, Hammerle CH. Immediate or early placement of implants following tooth extraction: review of biologic basis, clinical procedures, and outcomes. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004 Feb;19(Suppl):12-25.
Sarnachiaro O, Gargentinil C. Biological tissue reaction to immediate post extraction blade implants. Implantol 1979 Mar;1(4):44-51.
Schropp L, Wenzel A, Kostopoulos L, Karring T. Bone healing and soft tissue contour changes following single-tooth extraction: a clinical and radiographic 12-month prospective study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2003 Aug;23(4):313-323. ?
Koh RU, Oh TJ, Rudek I, Neiva GF, Misch CE, Rothman ED, Wang HL. Hard and soft tissue changes after crestal and subcrestal immediate implant placement. J Periodontol 2011 Aug;82(8):1112-1120.
Quirynen, Kostopoulos L, Wenzel A. World J Radiol Baishideng. CT scan standard reconstruction technique for reliable jaw bone volume determination. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;23:313-323.
Hansson S. Implant abutment interface: biomechanical study of flat top versus conical. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2000;2(1):33-41.
Chu CM, Huang HL, Hsu JT, Fuh LJ. Influences of internal tapered abutment designs on bone stresses around a dental implant: threedimensional finite element method with statistical evaluation. J Periodontol 2012 Jan;83(1):111-118.
Alkan I, Sertgöz A, Ekici B. Influence of occlusal forces on stress distribution in preloaded dental implant screws. J Prosthet Dent 2004 Apr;91(4):319-325.
Theoharidou A, Petridis HP, Tzannas K, Garefis P. Abutment screw loosening in singleimplant restorations: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23(4):691-690.
Segundo RM, Oshima HM, da Silva IN, Burnett LH Jr, Mota EG, Silva LL. Stress distribution of an internal connection implant pros theses set: a 3D finite element analysis. Stomatol 2009; 11(2):55-59.
Rubin CT, Lanyon LE. Limb mechanics as a function of speed and gait : a study of functional strains in the radius and tibia of horse and dog. J Exp Biol 1982 Dec;101:187-211.
Natali AN, Pavan PG, Ruggero AL. Analysis of boneimplant interaction phenomena by using a numerical approach. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006 Feb;17(1):67-74.
Quaresma SE, Cury PR, Sendyk WR, Sendyk C. A finite element analysis of two different dental implants: stress distribution in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting bone. J Oral Implantol 2008;34(1):1-6.
Hansson S. A conical implantabutment interface at the level of the marginal bone improves the distribution of stresses in the supporting bone. An axisymmetric finite element analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003 Jun;14(3):286-293.
Lin CL, Chang SH, Chang WJ, Kuo YC. Factorial analysis of variables influencing mechanical characteristics of a single tooth implant placed in the maxilla using finite element analysis and the statisticsbased Taguchi method. Eur J Oral Sci 2007 Oct;115(5):408-416.
Pessoa RS, Vaz LG, Marcantonio E Jr, Vander Sloten J, Duyck J, Jaecques SV. Biomechanical evaluation of platform switching in different implant protocols: computed tomographybased three-dimensional finite element analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010 SepOct; 25(5):911-919.
Hansson S. The implant neck: smooth or provided with retention elements. A biomechanical approach. Clin Oral Implant Res 1999 Oct;10(5):394-405.
Kitoh M, Matsushita Y, Yamane S, et al. The stress distribution of the hydroxyapatite implant under the vertical load by the two-dimensional finite element method. J Oral Implantol 1988; 14(1):65-71.
Meijer HJA, Starnians FIM, Steen WHA, Bosman F. A threedimensional, finite element analysis of bone around dental implants in an edentulous human mandible. Arch Oral Biol 1993 Jun;38(6):491-496.
Omori M, Sato Y, Kitagawa N, Shimura Y, Ito M. A biomechanical investigation of mandibular molar implants: reproducibility and validity of a finite element analysis model. Int J Implant Dentist 2015;1(10):2-13.
Implant Dentistry—The Most Promising Discipline of Dentistry. Implant Complications Ma Angeles Sánchez Garcés, Jaume Escoda-Francolí and Cosme Gay-Escoda University of Barcelona, Faculty of Dentistry, Spain.
Mendonca G, Mendonca DB, Fernandes Neto AJ, Neves FD. Use of distraction osteogenesis for repositioning of an osseointegrated implant: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23(3):551-555.
Georgiev T, Nogalchev K. Local complications occuring during dental implantation. J Int Med Assoc Bulgaria 2010;16(4):35-37.
Elie E. Daou Stud attachments for the mandibular implant retained overdentures: Prosthetic complications. A literature review. Remov able Prosthodontics Department, School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon The Saudi Dental Journal (2013). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. sdentj.2012.12.003
Steigmann M. Aesthetic flap design for correction of buccal fenestration defects, practical procedures and aesthetic dentistry: PPAD 2008;20(8):487-493.
Chrcanovic BR, Custodio AL. Mandibular fractures associated with endo steal implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery 2009;13 (4):231-238.
Misch CE, Resnik R. Mandibular nerve neurosensory impairment after dental implant surgery: management and protocol. Implant Dentistry 2010;19(5):378-386.
Wittneben JG, Millen C, Bragger U. Clinical performance of screw-versus cement-retained fixed implant-supported reconstructions—a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014;29(Suppl):84-98.
Moghadam HG, Cols Y, Histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using allogenic and alloplastic bone substitutes. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004 Feb;62(2):202-13.
Revie Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
Pereira CC, Gealh WC, Nogueira LM, Garcia IR JR, Okamoto R. Piezosurgey applied to implant dentistry: Clinical and biological aspects. J Oral Implantol 2012 Jan 4[Epub ahead of print].
Viña-Almunia J, Maestre-Ferrín L, Alegre-Domingo T, Peñarrocha-Diago MA. Survival of implants placed with the osteotome technique: An update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012;17(5):e765-68.
Piano S. A simple way to plan implant positioning: the ‘Stechnique’. Eur J Esthet Dent Autumn; 2011;6(3):328-41.
Kfir E, Goldestein M, Abramovitz I, Mazor Z, Kfir V, Kaluski E. The effects of sinus membrane pathology on bone augmentation and procedural outcome using minimal invasive antral membrane balloon elevation. J Oral Implantol 2012 Mar
[Epub ahead of print].
Kaneko T, Masuda I, Horie N, Shimoyama T. New bone formation in nongrafted sinus lifting with space-maintaining management: A novel technique using a titanium bone fixation device. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012Mar;70(3):e217-24.
Crespi R, Capparè P, Gherlone E. Osteotome sinus floor elevation and simultaneous implant placement in grafted biomaterial sockets: 3 years of follow-up. J Periodontol 2010 Mar;81(3):344-49.
Brägger U, Gerber C, Joss A, Haenni S, Meier A, Hashorva E, Lang NP. Patterns of tissue remodeling after placement of ITI dental implants using an osteotome technique: A longitudinal radiographic case cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004 Apr;15(2):158-66.
Lindgren C, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M. A prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study of implants placed after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate or deproteinized bovine bone. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012 Mar;14(1):41-50.
Guyot M, Dubuc O, Richard NP, Dutour O. Comparison between direct clinical and digital photogrammetric measurements in patients with 22q11 microdeletion. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003 June;32(3):246-52.
Jemt LT. Photogrammetric measurements of implant positions. Description of a technique to determine the fit between implants and superstructures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003;5(1):30-36.
Summers RB. The osteotome technique: Part 3. Less invasive methods of elevating the sinus floor. Compendium 1994;15: 702-04.
Taschieri S, Corbella S, Saita M, Tsesis I, Del Fabbro M. Osteotome-mediated sinus lift without grafting material: A review of literature and a technique proposal. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012, Article ID 849093, 9 pages.
Taschieri S, Corbella S, Del Fabbro M. Use of plasma rich in growth factor for Schneiderian membrane management during maxillary sinus augmentation procedure. J Oral Implantol 2012;38(5):621-27.
Mol A, Van de Stel APF. Application of digital image analysis in dental radiography for the description of periapical bone lesions: A preliminary study. (Special tissue in dentistry) Trans Biomed Eng 1991;38:357-59.
Palioto DB. Sato S. Computer assisted image analysis methods for evaluation of periodontal wound healing. Braz Dent J 2001;12(3):167-72.
Ganz SD. Cone beam computed tomography-assisted treatment planning concepts. Dent Clin North Am 2011 Jul;55(3):515-36.
Peck JN, Conte GJ. Radiologic techniques using CBCT and 3-D treatment planning for implant placement. J Calif Dent Assoc 2008 Apr;36(4):287-90.
Fienitz T, Schwarz F, Ritter L, Dreiseidler T, Becker J, Rothamel D. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in assessing peri-implant bone defect regeneration: A histologically controlled study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012Jul;23(7):882-87.
Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
Beretta M, Cicciù M, Bramanti E, Maiorana C. Schneider membrane elevation in presence of sinus septa: Anatomic features and surgical management. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012;Article ID 261905, 6 pages.
Ganz SD. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing applications using CT and cone beam CT scanning technology. Dent Clin North Am 2008 Oct;52(4):777-808.
Chung S, McCullagh A, Irinakis T. Immediate loading in the maxillary arch: Evidence-based guidelines to improve success rates: A review. J Oral Implantol 2011 Oct; 37(5):610-17.
Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.