International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2014 ) > List of Articles

CLINICAL TECHNIQUE

Tilted Implant Concept for Full Mouth Immediate Loading Restoration

Ajay Vikram Singh, Sunita Singh

Citation Information : Singh AV, Singh S. Tilted Implant Concept for Full Mouth Immediate Loading Restoration. Int J Oral Implantol Clin Res 2014; 5 (1):12-23.

DOI: 10.5005/JP-Journals-10012-1109

License: CC BY-ND 4.0

Published Online: 00-04-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Conventional techniques of full arch/full mouth implantation works on placement of implants and leaving them undisturbed for subgingival healing until they get osseo integrate into the jaw bone. These implants are uncovered after the subgingival healing of 3 to 6 months depending on various factors, such as bone density, implant dimensions, occlusal load, etc. and res tored in function once the soft tissue has healed in next 3 to 4 weeks. The vertical ridge loss along with maxillary sinus pneumatization restrict the clinician to place adequately long implants into posterior maxilla without performing sinus augmentation procedures. Further, many patients who have the chronic sinus pathologies do not qualify to receive the sinus graft and refused by the dentists for the fixed implant prosthesis. Uncontrolled diabetics are also not good candidates for the sinus grafting. In the implant dentistry, such patients have simply been treated with the implant over dentures by avoiding posterior maxilla. In the similar fashion, the vertically resorbed posterior mandible has also been a big challenge for the implant dentists in the cases where the dentist find insufficient bone dimensions to place even shortest available implants above the mandibular canal. In implant dentistry, various procedures, such as onlay block grafting, nerve repositioning, etc. have been advocated to manage the resorbed posterior mandible. Such procedures are more invasive, require multiple surgical steps, elongate the treatment time and also cause the tissue morbidity to some extent. Moreover, the full mouth work is not very simple in most cases because most of edentulous patients do not step in with adequate bone dimensions in all four parts of the jaws to place implants with adequate dimensions. Conventional way of treating edentulous patients with full mouth implant supported fixed prosthesis may require placement of multiple number of implants, bone augmentation procedures, longer treatment span and multiple number of surgical steps. Thus, such techniques are not always comfortable and also affordable to the patients. In comparison to the posterior segments, anterior parts of the jaws offer the bone with larger volume and higher density which enables the dentist to place longer implants with higher initial stability by stabilising implant apices into the opposing cortices/ basal bone (nasal floor, mandibular symphysis). In this tilted implant concept, the back implants are slanted distally to place the implant head at the second premolar or first molar position which enables to place longer implants, stabilizing their apices into the anterior higher density bone, and reduces the distal cantilever of the prosthesis. Total four implants are used in this technique where two straight implants are placed close to the midline and rest two implants are placed anterior to the maxillary sinus (in maxilla) or mental foramina (in mandible) which are slanted distally to reach the second premolar or first molar position. A 10 to 12 unit screw-retained metal to plastic (hybrid) splinted prosthesis is placed over these implants. Hence, it is a graft less implant placement procedure for restoring the edentulous jaws by tilting posterior implants for utilizing maximum amount of bone and stabilizing them into highest possible bone density. This facilitates an optimal support for an acrylic prosthesis that can be immediately fixed over the inserted implants to restore the esthetics and functions within few hours after the implant insertion surgery. This paper aims to explain the graft less approach for full arch immediate rehabilitation on 4 to 6 implants placed in one arch by smartly tilting the back implants to avoid vital structures, such as maxillary sinus and mandibular canal and stabilizing into the high density bone. This clinical study was done on total 80 implants to evaluate their success under the tilted positioning and immediate load conditions. The technique was performed on both diabetic and nondiabetic patients and no variation was found on the success rate between both the groups. None of the tilted implant got failed in 3 years follow-up but four implants got failed at anterior positions which immediately replaced with new implant placed at the adjacent position and restored in function. The mean values of bone loss relative to the implant platforms at 1 year follow- up were 0.8 mm for the maxilla and 0.5 mm for the mandible. The average bone loss for the maxilla and mandible respectively, at 3 years of follow-up were 1.3 mm. Thus, very promising results were found in this clinical study. Hence, the conclusion is that the tilted implant immediate function concept for completely edentulous patients has proven to be clinically effective technique, patient pleasing and applicable in various clinical situations where otherwise more invasive, complicated and expensive bone augmentation procedures would have been indicated.


PDF Share
  1. Thomason JM, Feine J, Exley C. Mandibular two implant-supported overdentures as the first choice standard of care for edentulous patients. Br Dent J 2009 Aug 22;207(4):185-186.
  2. Singh AV, Singh S, Rojo AV. Quality life for elderly edentulous patients with implant over dentures, implantology section. Dental Practice 2013 May-June; 11(6):22-25.
  3. Zitzmann NU, Marinello CP. Treatment outcomes of fixed or removable implantsupported prostheses in the edentulous maxilla. Part I: patients’ assessments. J Prosthet Dent 2000;83:424-433.
  4. Jl Stoeeinga PJW, Brouns JJA. Reconstruction of the severely resorbed (Class VI) maxilla. A twostep procedure. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;23:219-225.
  5. Hall HD, McKenna SJ. Bone graft of the maxillary sinus floor for Branemark implants: a preliminary report. In: Worthington P, Breine OR, editors. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991;3:869-873.
  6. Singh AV, Singh S. Keys to success for implant place ment in posterior maxilla, implantology section, Dental Practice 2013 March-April; 11(5):20-24.
  7. Singh AV, Jun Shimada. Block Grafting for dental implants. Clinical Implantology @ 2013 Elsevier, ISBN 978-81-312-3324-5: 349-379.
  8. Hears PE, Sailer HF. Neurosensory function after lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve and simultaneous insertion of implants. Oral Maxillofac Surg North Am 1994;7:707.
  9. Maló P, Rangert B, Nobre M. ‘All-on-Four’ immediate function concept with Brånemark System implants for completely edentulous mandibles: a retrospective clinical study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2003;5:S2-S9.
  10. Maló P, Rangert B, Nobre M. ‘All-on-4’ immediatefunction concept with Brånemark System implants for completely edentulous maxilla: a 1year retrospective clinical study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2005;7:S88-S94.
  11. Singh AV, Singh S. Full arch fixed prosthesis with all-on-4/all-on-6 approach. Clinical Implantology @ 2013 Elsevier, ISBN 978-81-312-3324-5. p. 575-611.
  12. Singh AV. Implants into pterygoid bone. Clinical Implantology @ 2013 Elsevier, ISBN 978-81-312-3324-5. p. 593-601.
  13. Peled M, Ardekian L, TaggerGreen N, et al. Dental implants in patients with type 2 diabeties mellitus: a clinical study. Implant Dent 2003;12:116-122.
  14. Shernoff AF, Colwell JA, Bingham SF. Implants for type 2 diabetic patients. VA Implants in diabetes study group. Implant Dent 1994;3:183-185.
  15. Marx RE, Cillo JE Jr, Ulloa JJ. Oral bisphosphonateinduced osteonecrosis: risk factors, prediction of risk using serum CTX testing, prevention and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65:2397-2410.
  16. Wang HL, Weber D, McCauley LK. Effect of longterm oral bisphos phonates on implant wound healing: literature review and a case report. J Periodontol 2007;78:584-594.
  17. Villari N, Fanfani F. Diagnostic contribution of CT in implantology: use of a new DentaScan reconstruction program. Radiol Med 1992;83(5):608-614.
  18. Misch CE, Moore P. Steroids and reduction of pain, edema and dysfunction in implant dentistry. Int J Oral Implant 1989;6:27-31.
  19. Adi Lorean, Ziv Mazor, Horia B. Nasal floor elevation combined with dental implant placement: a longterm report of up to 86 months. Int J Oral Maxillofac Imp May/June 2014;29(3).
  20. Singh AV. Nasal floor elevation and grafting. Clinical Implantology@2013 Elsevier, ISBN 978-81-312-3324-5. p. 517-542.
  21. Kim SG. Implant-related damage to an adjacent tooth: a case report. Implant Dent 2000;9:278-280.
  22. Margelos JT, Verdelis KG. Irreversible pulpal damage of teeth adjacent to recently placed osseointegrated implants. J Endod 1995;21:479-482.
  23. Rothman SL, Schwarz MS, Chafetz NI. High-resolution computerized tomography and nuclear bone scanning in the diagnosis of postoperative stress fractures of the mandible: a clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1995;10:765-768.
  24. Mason ME, Triplett RC, van Sickels JE, Parel SM. Mandibular fractures through endosseous cylinder implants: report of cases and review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990;48:311-317.
  25. Tolman DE, Keller EE. Management of mandibular fractures in patients with endosseous implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1991;6:427-436.
  26. Shonberg DC, Stith HD, Jameson LM, Chai JY. Mandibular fracture through an endosseous implant. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1992;7:40-44.
  27. Neyt L, De Clercq C, Abeloos J, Mommaerts M. Mandibular fractures following insertion of denial implants. Acta Stomatol Belg 1993;90:251-258.
  28. Kan JY, Lozada JL, Boyne PJ, Goodacre CJ, Rungcharassaeng K. Mandibular fracture after endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a patient treatment report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12: 655-659.
  29. Raghoebar GM, Stellingsma K, Batenburg RH, Vissink A. Etiology and management of mandibular fractures associated with endosteal implants in the atrophic mandible. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;89:553-559.
  30. Laboda G. Life-threatening hemorrhage after placement of an endosseous implant: report of case. J Am Dent Assoc 1990;121: 599-600.
  31. Mason ME, Triplett RG, Alfonso WF. Life-threatening hemorrhage from placement of a dental implant. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990;48:201-244.
  32. Ten Bruggenkate CM, Krekeler G, Kraaijenhagen HA, Foitzik C, Oosterbeek HS. Hemorrhage of the floor of the mouth resulting from lingual perforation during implant placement: a clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:329-334.
  33. Mordenfeld A, Andersson L, Bergstrom B. Hemorrhage in the floor of the mouth during implant placement in the edentulous mandible: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997; 12:558-561.
  34. Givol N, Chaushu G, Halamish-Shani T, Taicher S. Emergency tracheostomy following life-threatening hemorrhage in the floor of the mouth during immediate implant placement in the mandibular canine region. J Periodontol 2000;71: 1893-1895.
  35. Dwyer MS. Re: Near fatal venous nitrogen/air embolism occurrence while inserting cylindrical endosseous oral implants. J Periodontol 1992;63(1):63.
  36. Theisen FC, Shultz RE, Elledge DA. Displacement of a root form implant into the mandibular canal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70:24-28.
  37. Bergermann M, Donald PJ, Wengen DF. Screwdriver aspiration: a complication of dental implant placement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1992;21:339-341.
  38. Li KK, Varvares MA, Meara JG. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: acomplication of dental implant surgery. Head Neck 1996;18:192-196.
  39. Krepler K, Wedrich A, Schranz R. Intraocular hemorrhage associated with dental implant surgery. Am J Ophthal 1996; 122:745-746.
  40. Strull GE, Dym H. Singultus: a distressing postsurgical complication. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;53:711-713.
  41. Goodacre CJ, Benal G. Clinical complications with implants and implant prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90:121-132.
  42. Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Branemark PI. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg 1981;10:387-416.
  43. Jemt T. Failures and complications in 391 consecutively inserted fixed prostheses supported by Branemark implants in edentulous jaws: a study of treatment from the time of prosthesis placement to the first annual check-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1991;6:270-276.
  44. Misch CE. Contemporary Implant Dentistry. 3rd ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 2008 Feb 4. p. 1120.
  45. Implant text risk factors in implant dentistry: simplified clinical analysis for predictable treatment. 2nd ed. Franck Renouard, DDS.
  46. Implant Dentistry—The Most Promising Discipline of Dentistry. Implant Complications Ma Angeles Sánchez Garcés, Jaume Escoda-Francolí and Cosme Gay-Escoda University of Barcelona, Faculty of Dentistry, Spain.
  47. Mendonca G, Mendonca DB, Fernandes Neto AJ, Neves FD. Use of distraction osteogenesis for repositioning of an osseointegrated implant: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23(3):551-555.
  48. Georgiev T, Nogalchev K. Local complications occuring during dental implantation. J Int Med Assoc Bulgaria 2010;16(4):35-37.
  49. Elie E. Daou Stud attachments for the mandibular implant retained overdentures: Prosthetic complications. A literature review. Remov able Prosthodontics Department, School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon The Saudi Dental Journal (2013). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. sdentj.2012.12.003
  50. Steigmann M. Aesthetic flap design for correction of buccal fenestration defects, practical procedures and aesthetic dentistry: PPAD 2008;20(8):487-493.
  51. Chrcanovic BR, Custodio AL. Mandibular fractures associated with endo steal implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery 2009;13 (4):231-238.
  52. Misch CE, Resnik R. Mandibular nerve neurosensory impairment after dental implant surgery: management and protocol. Implant Dentistry 2010;19(5):378-386.
  53. Wittneben JG, Millen C, Bragger U. Clinical performance of screw-versus cement-retained fixed implant-supported reconstructions—a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014;29(Suppl):84-98.
  54. Moghadam HG, Cols Y, Histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using allogenic and alloplastic bone substitutes. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004 Feb;62(2):202-13.
  55. Revie Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
  56. Pereira CC, Gealh WC, Nogueira LM, Garcia IR JR, Okamoto R. Piezosurgey applied to implant dentistry: Clinical and biological aspects. J Oral Implantol 2012 Jan 4[Epub ahead of print].
  57. Viña-Almunia J, Maestre-Ferrín L, Alegre-Domingo T, Peñarrocha-Diago MA. Survival of implants placed with the osteotome technique: An update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012;17(5):e765-68.
  58. Piano S. A simple way to plan implant positioning: the ‘Stechnique’. Eur J Esthet Dent Autumn; 2011;6(3):328-41.
  59. Kfir E, Goldestein M, Abramovitz I, Mazor Z, Kfir V, Kaluski E. The effects of sinus membrane pathology on bone augmentation and procedural outcome using minimal invasive antral membrane balloon elevation. J Oral Implantol 2012 Mar
  60. [Epub ahead of print].
  61. Kaneko T, Masuda I, Horie N, Shimoyama T. New bone formation in nongrafted sinus lifting with space-maintaining management: A novel technique using a titanium bone fixation device. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012Mar;70(3):e217-24.
  62. Crespi R, Capparè P, Gherlone E. Osteotome sinus floor elevation and simultaneous implant placement in grafted biomaterial sockets: 3 years of follow-up. J Periodontol 2010 Mar;81(3):344-49.
  63. Brägger U, Gerber C, Joss A, Haenni S, Meier A, Hashorva E, Lang NP. Patterns of tissue remodeling after placement of ITI dental implants using an osteotome technique: A longitudinal radiographic case cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004 Apr;15(2):158-66.
  64. Lindgren C, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M. A prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study of implants placed after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate or deproteinized bovine bone. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012 Mar;14(1):41-50.
  65. Guyot M, Dubuc O, Richard NP, Dutour O. Comparison between direct clinical and digital photogrammetric measurements in patients with 22q11 microdeletion. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003 June;32(3):246-52.
  66. Jemt LT. Photogrammetric measurements of implant positions. Description of a technique to determine the fit between implants and superstructures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003;5(1):30-36.
  67. Summers RB. The osteotome technique: Part 3. Less invasive methods of elevating the sinus floor. Compendium 1994;15: 702-04.
  68. Taschieri S, Corbella S, Saita M, Tsesis I, Del Fabbro M. Osteotome-mediated sinus lift without grafting material: A review of literature and a technique proposal. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012, Article ID 849093, 9 pages.
  69. Taschieri S, Corbella S, Del Fabbro M. Use of plasma rich in growth factor for Schneiderian membrane management during maxillary sinus augmentation procedure. J Oral Implantol 2012;38(5):621-27.
  70. Mol A, Van de Stel APF. Application of digital image analysis in dental radiography for the description of periapical bone lesions: A preliminary study. (Special tissue in dentistry) Trans Biomed Eng 1991;38:357-59.
  71. Palioto DB. Sato S. Computer assisted image analysis methods for evaluation of periodontal wound healing. Braz Dent J 2001;12(3):167-72.
  72. Ganz SD. Cone beam computed tomography-assisted treatment planning concepts. Dent Clin North Am 2011 Jul;55(3):515-36.
  73. Peck JN, Conte GJ. Radiologic techniques using CBCT and 3-D treatment planning for implant placement. J Calif Dent Assoc 2008 Apr;36(4):287-90.
  74. Fienitz T, Schwarz F, Ritter L, Dreiseidler T, Becker J, Rothamel D. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in assessing peri-implant bone defect regeneration: A histologically controlled study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012Jul;23(7):882-87.
  75. Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
  76. Beretta M, Cicciù M, Bramanti E, Maiorana C. Schneider membrane elevation in presence of sinus septa: Anatomic features and surgical management. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012;Article ID 261905, 6 pages.
  77. Ganz SD. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing applications using CT and cone beam CT scanning technology. Dent Clin North Am 2008 Oct;52(4):777-808.
  78. Chung S, McCullagh A, Irinakis T. Immediate loading in the maxillary arch: Evidence-based guidelines to improve success rates: A review. J Oral Implantol 2011 Oct; 37(5):610-17.
  79. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
  80. Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
  81. Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
  82. Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
  83. Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.