International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2013 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Implant Supported Mandible Over Denture with Four Implants Key Facts

Farhan Durrani

Citation Information : Durrani F. Implant Supported Mandible Over Denture with Four Implants Key Facts. Int J Oral Implantol Clin Res 2013; 4 (3):99-101.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10012-1101

License: CC BY-ND 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Implant retained over denture (IRO) is a satisfactory treatment modality for edentulous patient with problems with their lower denture. There are good reasons why this treatment should be selected in preferences to using tissue supported dentures. There are certain rules that provide a method to control the mechanical environment, addressing factors effecting implant and prosthesis longevity, including magnitude of forces, resistance of prosthesis against theses forces, and the biology of bone and its ability to respond to loading environments. Materials and methods: Ten edentulous patients were selected for implant retained prosthesis for the mandible, with minimum four implants in parasymphysis region and prosthesis were delivered after period of 3 months. Conclusion: Certain important points needs consideration for successful prosthesis and its longevity.


PDF Share
  1. van Steenberghe D, Lekholm U, Bolender C, Folmer T, Henry P, Herrmann I, Higuchi K, Laney W, Linden U, Astrand P. Applicability of osseointegrated oral implants in the rehabilitation of partial edentulism: a prospective multicenter study on 558 fixtures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1990 Fall;5(3):272-281.
  2. Ekelund JA, Lindquist LW, Carlsson GE, Jemt T. Implant treatment in the edentulous mandible: a prospective study on Brånemark system implants over more than 20 years. Int J Prosthodont 2003 Nov-Dec;16(6):602-608.
  3. Bryant SR, MacDonald-Jankowski D, Kim K. Does the type of implant prosthesis affect outcomes for the completely edentulous arch? Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22Suppl:117-139.
  4. Meijer HJ, Raghoebar GM, Batenburg RH, Visser A, Vissink A. Mandibular overdentures supported by two or four endosseous implants: a 10-year clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009 Jul;20(7):722-728. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01710.x. Epub 2009 Mar 27.
  5. Cooper LF, Moriarty JD, Guckes AD, Klee LB, Smith RG, Almgren C, Felton DA. Five-year prospective evaluation of mandibular overdentures retained by two microthreaded, Tioblast nonsplinted implants and retentive ball anchors. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008 Jul-Aug;23(4):696-704.
  6. Brånemark PI, Svensson B, van Steenberghe D. Ten-year survival rates of fixed prostheses on four or six implants ad modum Brånemark in full edentulism. Clin Oral Implants Res 1995 Dec,6(4):227-231.
  7. Eliasson A. On the role of number of fixtures, surgical technique and timing of loading. Swed Dent J Suppl 2008;(197):3-95.
  8. Sertgöz A. Finite element analysis study of the effect of superstructure material on stress distribution in an implantsupported fixed prosthesis. Int J Prosthodont 1997 Jan-Feb; 10(1):19-27.
  9. Vercruyssen M, Marcelis K, Coucke W, et al. Long-term, retrospective evaluation (implant and patient centered outcome) of the two implant supported overdenture in the mandible Part1; survival rate. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(4):357-365.
  10. Phillips K, Wong KM. Vertical space requirement for the fixeddetachable, implant-supported prosthesis. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23(8):750-756.
  11. Lee CK, Agar JR. Surgical and prosthetic planning for a twoimplant- retained mandibular overdenture: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2006 Feb;95(2):102-105.
  12. Greenstein G, Tarnow D. The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review. J Periodontol 2006;12:1933-1943.
  13. Malo P, de Araújo Nobre M, Lopes A, Moss SM, Molina GJ. A longitudinal study of the survival of All-on-4 implants in the mandible with up to 10 years of follow-up. J Am Dent Assoc 2011 Mar;142(3):310-320.
  14. Akca K, Uysal S, Cehreli MC. Implant-tooth-supported fixed partial prostheses: correlations between in vivo occlusal bite forces and marginal bone reactions. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006 Jun;17(3):331-336.
  15. Gunne J, Astrand P, Lindh T, Borg K, Olsson M. Tooth implant and implant supported fixed partial dentures: a 10-year report. Int J Prosthodont 1999 May-Jun;12(3):216-221.
  16. Zhiyong L, Arataki T, Shimamura I, Kishi M. The influence of prosthesis designs and loading conditions on the stress distribution of tooth-implant supported prostheses. The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College 2004;45(4):p. 213-221.
  17. Greenstein G, Cavallaro J, Smith R, Tarnow D. Connecting teeth to implants: a critical review of the literature and presentation of practical guidelines. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 2009;30(7):p. 440-453.
  18. Rieder CE, Parel SM. A survey of natural tooth abutment intrusion with implant-connected fixed partial dentures. The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 1993;13(4):p. 334-347.
  19. Clarke DF, Chen ST, Dickinson AJG. The use of a dental implant as an abutment in three unit implant- tooth supported fixed partial denture: a case report and 32 month follow-up. Aust Dent J 2006 Sep;51(3):263-267.
  20. Lin CL, Wang JC. Nonlinear finite element analysis of a splinted implant with various connectors and occlusal forces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003 May-Jun;18(3):331-340.
  21. Schlumberger TL, Bowley JF, Maze GI. Intrusion phenomenon in combination tooth-implant restorations: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 1998 Aug;80(2):199-203.
  22. Sheets CG, Earthman JC. Tooth intrusion in implant-assisted prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 1997 Jan;77(1):39-45.
  23. Ormianer Z, Brosh T, Laufer BZ, Shifman A. Strains recorded in a combined tooth-implant restoration: an in vivo study. Implant Dent 2005 Mar;14(1):58-62.
  24. Rieder CE. Copings on tooth and implant abutments for superstructure prostheses. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1990;10(6):436-453.
  25. Ramoglu S, Tasar S, Gunsoy S, Ozan O, Meric G. Tooth implant connection: a review. ISRN Biomaterials Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 921645, p. 7.
  26. Veis A, Parissis N, Tsirlis A, Papadeli C, Marinis G, Zogakis A. Evaluation of peri-implant marginal bone loss using modified abutment connections at various crestal level placements. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2010;30:609-617.
  27. Canullo L, Pellegrini G, Allievi C, Trombelli L, Annibali S, Dellavia CJ. Soft tissues around long-term platform switching implant restorations: a histological human evaluation. Preliminary results. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:86-94.
  28. Enkling N, Johren P, Klimberg T, Mericske-Stern R, Jervoe- Storm PM, Bayer S, Gulden N, Jepsen S. Open or submerged healing of implants with platform switching: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:374-384.
  29. Khurana P, Sharma A, Sodhi KK. Influence of fine threads and platform-switching on crestal bone stress around implant—a three dimensional finite element analysis. J Oral Implantol. Published online September 9,2011;doi.org/10.1563/AAID-JOID- 10-00148.
  30. Aloy-Prosper A, Maestre-Ferrín L, Penarrocha-Oltra D, Penarrocha-Diago M. Marginal bone loss in relation to the implant neck surface: an Update Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:e365-368.
  31. Abrahamsson I, Berglundh T. Tissue characteristics at microthreaded implants: an experimental study in dogs. Clin Impl Dent Rel Res 2006;8:107-113.
  32. Hudieb MI, Wakabayashi N, Kasugai S. Magnitude and direction of mechanical stress at the osseointegrated interface of the microthread implant. J Periodontol 2011;82:1061-1107.
  33. Tallarico M, Vaccarella A, Marzi GC. Clinical and radiological outcomes of 1- versus 2-stage implant placement: 1-year results of a randomised clinical trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2011;4: 13-20.
  34. Becker J, Ferrari D, Mihatovic I, Sahm N, Schaer A, Schwarz F. Stability of crestal bone level at platform switched nonsubmerged titanium implants: a histomorphometrical study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:532-539.
  35. Song DW, Lee DW, Kim CK, Park KH, Moon IS. Comparative analysis of peri-implant marginal bone loss based on microthread location: a 1-year prospective study after loading. J Periodontol 2009;80:1937-1944.
  36. Van de Velde T, Collaert B, Sennerby L, De Bruyn H. Effect of implant design on preservation of marginal bone in the mandible. Clin Impl Dent Rel Res 2009;12:134-141.
  37. Yun HJ, et al. A short-term clinical study of marginal bone level change around microthreaded and platform-switched implants. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2011;41:211-217.
  38. Ferraz CC, et al. Influence of microthreads and platform switching on stress distribution in bone using angled abutments. J Prosthodont Res 2012;56:256-263.
  39. Schrotenboer J, Tsao YP, Kinariwala V, Wang HL. Effect of microthreads and platform switching on crestal bone stress levels: a finite element analysis. J Periodontol 2008;79: 2166-2172.
  40. Iasella JM, Greenwell H, Miller RL, Hill M, Drisko C, Bohra AA, et al. Ridge preservation with freeze-dried bone allograft and a collagen membrane compared to extraction alone for implant site development: A clinical and histologic study in humans. J Periodontol 2003 Jul;74(7):990-99.
  41. American Academy of Periodontology. The potential role of growth and differentiation factors in periodontal regeneration (position paper). J Periodontol 2005;76:1601-22.
  42. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. The efficacy of various bone augmentation procedures for dental implants: A Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006 Sep-Oct;21(5):696-710.
  43. Wallace SS. Maxillary sinus augmentation: Evidence-based decision making with a biological surgical approach. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2006 Dec;27(12):662-69.
  44. Schleier P, Bierfreund G, Schultze-Mosgau S, Moldenhauer F, Küpper H, Freilich M. Simultaneous dental implant placement and endoscope-guided internal sinus floor elevation: Two years post-loading outcomes. Clin Oral Implants Res 2008 Nov;19(11):1163-70.
  45. Urban IA, Lozada JL. A prospective study of implants placed in augmented sinuses with minimal and moderate residual crestal bone: Results after 1 to 5 years. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010 Nov-Dec;25(6):1203-12.
  46. Boyne PJ, James RA. Grafting of the maxillary sinus floor with autogenous marrow and bone. J Oarl Surg 1980;38:6.
  47. Sethi A, Kaus T. Maxillary ridge expansion with simultaneous implant placement: Five years results of an ongoing clínical study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:491-99.
  48. Sisti A, Canullo L, Mottola MP, Iannello G. Crestal minimallyinvasive sinus lift on severely resorbed maxillary crest: Prospective study. Biomed Tech (Berl) 2012 Jan 9;57(1): 45-51.
  49. Riben C, Thor A. The maxillary sinus membrane elevation procedure: Augmentation of bone around dental implants without grafts: A review of a surgical technique. Int J Dent 2012.
  50. Trisi P, Rao W. Bone classification: Clinical-histomorphometric comparison. Clin Oral Implants Res 1999;10:1-7.
  51. Fornell J, Johansson LÅ, Bolin A, Isaksson S, Sennerby L. Flapless, CBCT-guided osteotome sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant installation. I: Radiographic examination and surgical technique. A prospective 1-year follow-up. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 Jan; 23(1):28-34.
  52. Zubillaga G, Von Hagen S, Simon B, Deasy M. Changes in alveolar bone height and width following post-extraction ridge augmentation using a fixed bioabsorbable membrane and demineralized freeze-dried bone osteoinductive graft. J Periodontol 2003;74:965-75.
  53. Simon B, Von Hagen S, Deasy M, Faldu M, Resnansky D. Changes in alveolar bone height and width following ridge augmentation using bone graft and membranes. J Periodontol 2000;71:1774-91.
  54. Moghadam HG, Cols Y, Histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using allogenic and alloplastic bone substitutes. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004 Feb;62(2):202-13.
  55. Revie Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
  56. Pereira CC, Gealh WC, Nogueira LM, Garcia IR JR, Okamoto R. Piezosurgey applied to implant dentistry: Clinical and biological aspects. J Oral Implantol 2012 Jan 4[Epub ahead of print].
  57. Viña-Almunia J, Maestre-Ferrín L, Alegre-Domingo T, Peñarrocha-Diago MA. Survival of implants placed with the osteotome technique: An update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012;17(5):e765-68.
  58. Piano S. A simple way to plan implant positioning: the ‘Stechnique’. Eur J Esthet Dent Autumn; 2011;6(3):328-41.
  59. Kfir E, Goldestein M, Abramovitz I, Mazor Z, Kfir V, Kaluski E. The effects of sinus membrane pathology on bone augmentation and procedural outcome using minimal invasive antral membrane balloon elevation. J Oral Implantol 2012 Mar
  60. [Epub ahead of print].
  61. Kaneko T, Masuda I, Horie N, Shimoyama T. New bone formation in nongrafted sinus lifting with space-maintaining management: A novel technique using a titanium bone fixation device. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012Mar;70(3):e217-24.
  62. Crespi R, Capparè P, Gherlone E. Osteotome sinus floor elevation and simultaneous implant placement in grafted biomaterial sockets: 3 years of follow-up. J Periodontol 2010 Mar;81(3):344-49.
  63. Brägger U, Gerber C, Joss A, Haenni S, Meier A, Hashorva E, Lang NP. Patterns of tissue remodeling after placement of ITI dental implants using an osteotome technique: A longitudinal radiographic case cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004 Apr;15(2):158-66.
  64. Lindgren C, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M. A prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study of implants placed after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate or deproteinized bovine bone. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012 Mar;14(1):41-50.
  65. Guyot M, Dubuc O, Richard NP, Dutour O. Comparison between direct clinical and digital photogrammetric measurements in patients with 22q11 microdeletion. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003 June;32(3):246-52.
  66. Jemt LT. Photogrammetric measurements of implant positions. Description of a technique to determine the fit between implants and superstructures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003;5(1):30-36.
  67. Summers RB. The osteotome technique: Part 3. Less invasive methods of elevating the sinus floor. Compendium 1994;15: 702-04.
  68. Taschieri S, Corbella S, Saita M, Tsesis I, Del Fabbro M. Osteotome-mediated sinus lift without grafting material: A review of literature and a technique proposal. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012, Article ID 849093, 9 pages.
  69. Taschieri S, Corbella S, Del Fabbro M. Use of plasma rich in growth factor for Schneiderian membrane management during maxillary sinus augmentation procedure. J Oral Implantol 2012;38(5):621-27.
  70. Mol A, Van de Stel APF. Application of digital image analysis in dental radiography for the description of periapical bone lesions: A preliminary study. (Special tissue in dentistry) Trans Biomed Eng 1991;38:357-59.
  71. Palioto DB. Sato S. Computer assisted image analysis methods for evaluation of periodontal wound healing. Braz Dent J 2001;12(3):167-72.
  72. Ganz SD. Cone beam computed tomography-assisted treatment planning concepts. Dent Clin North Am 2011 Jul;55(3):515-36.
  73. Peck JN, Conte GJ. Radiologic techniques using CBCT and 3-D treatment planning for implant placement. J Calif Dent Assoc 2008 Apr;36(4):287-90.
  74. Fienitz T, Schwarz F, Ritter L, Dreiseidler T, Becker J, Rothamel D. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in assessing peri-implant bone defect regeneration: A histologically controlled study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012Jul;23(7):882-87.
  75. Leziy SS, Miller BA. Guided implant surgery and the use of osteotomes for rehabilitation of the maxilla. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006 Jun;18(5):293-95.
  76. Beretta M, Cicciù M, Bramanti E, Maiorana C. Schneider membrane elevation in presence of sinus septa: Anatomic features and surgical management. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int J Dent 2012;Article ID 261905, 6 pages.
  77. Ganz SD. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing applications using CT and cone beam CT scanning technology. Dent Clin North Am 2008 Oct;52(4):777-808.
  78. Chung S, McCullagh A, Irinakis T. Immediate loading in the maxillary arch: Evidence-based guidelines to improve success rates: A review. J Oral Implantol 2011 Oct; 37(5):610-17.
  79. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
  80. Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
  81. Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
  82. Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
  83. Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.