International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2013 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Anatomical Considerations in Implant Selection and Positioning

Manoj Shetty, D Krishna Prasad, Divya Rajan Mehra

Citation Information : Shetty M, Prasad DK, Mehra DR. Anatomical Considerations in Implant Selection and Positioning. Int J Oral Implantol Clin Res 2013; 4 (1):24-29.

DOI: 10.5005/JP-Journals-10012-1088

License: CC BY-ND 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

This article reviews the various anatomical facts significant for preoperative planning of implant procedures in the mandible and the maxilla. This planning includes the precise evaluation of distinct anatomical factors, such as the position of the mandibular canal, the maxillary sinus, the width of the cortical plates, the existing bone density, appropriate implant selection and planning the most appropriate implant position in the existing clinical condition.


PDF Share
  1. Pullen G, Debenham C. Short implants: Reality and predictability. Acad Dent Therap Stomato 2011 Jan:1-15.
  2. Wood MR, Vermilyea SG. A review of selected dental literature on evidence-based treatment planning for dental implants: Report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2004;92: 447-62.
  3. Khoury F. Augmentation of the sinus floor with mandibular bone block and simultaneous implantation: A 6-year clinical investigation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1998;14:557-64.
  4. Raghoebar GM, Vissink A. Treatment for an endosseous implant migrated into the maxillary sinus not causing maxillary sinusitis: Case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;18(5):74.
  5. Chappuis V, Suter VG, Bornstein MM. Displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus: Report of an unusual complication when performing staged sinus floor elevation procedures. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29(1): 81-87.
  6. Abrahams JJ, Hayt MW, Rock R. Sinus lift procedure of the maxilla in patients with inadequate bone for dental implants. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000 May;174:1289-92.
  7. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Rees J, Karasoulos D, Felice P, Alissa R, et al. Effectiveness of sinus lift procedures for dental implant rehabilitation: A Cochrane systematic review. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010 Spring;3(1):7-26.
  8. Juodzbalys G, Wang HL, Sabalys G. Anatomy of mandibular vital structures. Part I: Mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle in relation with dental implantology. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2010 (Jan-Mar);1(1):e2.
  9. Heasman PA. Variation in the position of the inferior dental canal and its significance to restorative dentistry. J Dent. 1988 Feb;16(1):36-39.
  10. Levine MH, Goddard AL, Dodson TB. Inferior alveolar nerve canal position: A clinical and radiographic study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Mar;65(3):470-74.
  11. Kim ST, Hu KS, Song WC, Kang MK, Park HD, Kim HJ. Location of the mandibular canal and the topography of its neurovascular structures. J Craniofac Surg 2009 May;20(3): 936-39.
  12. Juodzbalys G, Wang HL. Guidelines for the identification of the mandibular vital structures: Practical clinical applications of anatomy and radiological examination methods. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2010 (Apr-Jun);1(2):e1.
  13. Juodzbalys G, Wang HL, Sabalys G. Anatomy of mandibular vital structures. Part II: Mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen and associated neurovascular bundles in relation with dental implantology. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2010 (Jan-Mar);1(1):e3.
  14. Kurtzman GM, Dompkowski DF, Mahler BA, Howes DG. Offaxis implant placement for anatomical considerations using the co-axis implant. Inside Dentistry 2008;12(5):96-102.
  15. Oesterle LJ, Cronin RJ Jr, Ranly DM. Maxillary implants and the growing patient. JOMI 1993Apr;377-86.
  16. Prasad DA, Prasad DK. Effect of implant placement in growing adults on cranioifacial development. A literature review. J Dent Imp 2012;2(2):97-102.
  17. Beikler T, Flemmig TF. Implants in the medically compromised patient. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(4):305-16.
  18. Oikarinen K, Raustia AM, Fartikainen M. General and oral local contraindications for endosteal implants: An epidemiological panoramic radiographic study in 65-year-old subjects. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23:114-18.
  19. Misch C. Dental implant complications: Etiology, prevention and treatment (1st ed). Wiley- Blackwell 2010:57-62.
  20. Wennstrom JL, Bengazi F, Lekholm U. The influence of the masticatory mucosa on the peri-implant soft tissue condition. Clin Oral Implants Res 1994;5:1-8.
  21. Tawil G, Aboujaoude N, Younan R. Influence of prosthetic parameters on the survival and complication rates of short implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006 Mar-Apr;21(2): 275-82.
  22. Misch CE. Contemporary implant dentistry (3rd ed). St Louis: Mosby, Inc. 2008:168-72.
  23. Winkler S, Morris HF, Ochi S. Implant survival to 36 months as related to length and diameter. Ann Periodontol 2000;5: 22-31.
  24. Haraldson T, Carlsson GE, Ingervall B. Functional state, bite force and postural muscle activity in patients with osseointegrated oral implant bridges. Acta Odontol Scand 1979;37:195-206.
  25. Kiliaridis S, Kjellberg H, Wenneberg B, Engstrom C. The relationship between maximal bite force, bite force endurance, and facial morphology during growth. A cross-sectional study. Acta Odontol Scand 1993;51:323-31.
  26. Butz F, Heydecke G, Okutan M, Strub JR. Survival rate, fracture strength and failure mode of ceramic implant abutments after chewing simulation. J Oral Rehabil 2005;32:838-43.
  27. Andersson B, Glauser R, Maglione M, Taylor A. Ceramic implant abutments for short-span FPDs: A prospective 5-year multicenter study. Int J Prosthodont 2003;16:640-46.
  28. Andersson B, Taylor A, Lang BR, Scheller H, Schaerer P, Sorensen JA, Tarnow D. Alumina ceramic implant abutments used for single-tooth replacement: A prospective 1- to 3-year multicenter study. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:432-38.
  29. Henriksson K, Jemt T. Evaluation of custom-made procera ceramic abutments for single-implant tooth replacement: A prospective 1-year follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2003; 16:626-30.
  30. Glauser R, Wohlwend A, Studer S. Application of zirconia abutments on single-tooth implants in the maxillary esthetic zone. A 6-year clinical and radiographic follow-up report. Applied Osseointegration Research 2004;4:41-45.
  31. Heydecke G, Sierraalta M, Razzoog ME. Evolution and use of aluminum oxide single-tooth implant abutments: A short review and presentation of two cases. Int J Prosthodont 2002;15: 488-93.
  32. Ottl P, Piwowarczyk A, Lauer HC, Hegenbarth EA. The Procera AllCeram system. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2000; 20:151-61.
  33. Pröbster L. All-ceramic crowns on modified CeraOne abutments: A case report. Quintessence Int 1998;29:52-65.
  34. Yildirim M, Fischer H, Marx R, Edelhoff D. In vivo fracture resistance of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90:325-31.
  35. Att W, Kurun S, Gerds T, Strub JR. Fracture resistance of singletooth implant-supported all-ceramic restorations after exposure to the artificial mouth. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33:380-86.
  36. Att W, Kurun S, Gerds T, Strub JR. Fracture resistance of singletooth implant-supported all-ceramic restorations: An in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent 2006;95:111-16.
  37. Scarano A, Piattelli M, Caputi S, Favero GA, Piattelli A. Bacterial adhesion on commercially pure titanium and zirconium oxide disks: An in vivo human study. J Periodontol 2004;75: 292-96.
  38. Rimondini L, Cerroni L, Carrassi A, Torricelli P. Bacterial colonization of zirconia ceramic surfaces: An in vitro and in vivo study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002;17:793-98.
  39. Kou W, Molin M, Sjogren G. Surface roughness of five different dental ceramic core materials after grinding and polishing. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33:117-24.
  40. Raigrodski AJ. Contemporary all-ceramic fixed partial dentures: a review. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:531-44.
  41. Guazzato M, Albakry M, Ringer SP, Swain MV. Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all ceramic materials. Part II. Zirconia-based dental ceramics. Dent Mater 2004;20:449-56.
  42. Studart AR, Filser F, Kocher P, Luthy H, Gauckler LJ. Cyclic fatigue in water of veneer-framework composites for all-ceramic dental bridges. Dent Mater 2007;23:177-85.
  43. Vigolo P, Fonzi F, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. An in vitro evaluation of ZiReal abutments with hexagonal connection: In original state and following abutment preparation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:108-14.
  44. Vigolo P, Fonzi F, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. An in vitro evaluation of titanium, zirconia, and alumina procera abutments with hexagonal connection. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:575-80.
  45. Park SW, Driscoll CF, Romberg EE, Siegel S, Thompson G. Ceramic implant abutments: Cutting efficiency and resultant surface finish by diamond rotary cutting instruments. J Prosthet Dent 2006;95:444-49.
  46. Kim YK, Yun PY, Lee HJ, Ahn JY, Kim SG. Ridge preservation of the molar extraction socket using collagen sponge and xenogenic bone grafts. Implant Dent Aug 2011;20(4):267-72.
  47. Len Tolstunov, Jibin Chi. Alveolar ridge augmentation: comparison of two socket graft materials in implant cases. Compend Cont Edu, March 2011;32(2).
  48. Brunski JB. Forces on dental implants and interfacial stress transfer. In: Laney WR, Tolman DE (Eds). Tissue Integration in Oral, Orthopaedic and Maxillofacial Reconstruction. Chicago: Quintessence 1992:108-24.
  49. Brunski JB. Avoiding pitfalls in overloading and micromotions of intraosseous implants (Interview). Dent Implantol Update 1993;4(10):77-81.
  50. Tarnow D, Elian N, Fletcher P, et al. Vertical distance from the crest of bone to the height of the interproximal papilla between adjacent implants. J Periodontol 2003;74:1785-88.
  51. Ericsson J, Persson LG. Different types of implant-associated reactions in periodontal soft tissues. J Clin Periodont 1995; 22:255-61.
  52. Steinebrunner L, Wolfart S. In vitro evaluation of bacterial leakage along the implant of different implant abutment interface of different implant systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:875-81.
  53. Engelke W, Decco OA. In vitro evaluation of horizontal implant micromovement in bone specimen with contact endoscopy. Implant Dent 2004;13:88-94.
  54. Hermann J, Buser D, Schenk RK, Schoolfield JD. Influence of the size of the microgap on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged implants in canine mandible. J Periodontol 2001;72:1372-83.
  55. Hermann JS, Buser D, Schenk RK, et al. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Peridontol 2000;71:1412-24.
  56. Wohrle PS. Nobel perfect esthetic scalloped implant: Rationale for a new design. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2003;5:64-73.
  57. Nentwig GH. Ankylos implant system: Concept and clinical application. J Oral Implantol 2004;30:171-77.
  58. Gardener D. Maintaining crestal bone around dental implants: Literature review and clinical technique. Dentistry Today 2006.
  59. Tonetti MS, Sanz M. Consensus report of session B. In: Lang N, Karring T, Lindhe J. Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. Berlin: Quintessence 1999:185-88.
  60. Huang MT, Ho CT, Wang ZY, Ferraro T, Lou YR, Stauber K, Ma W, Georgiadis C, Laskin JD, Conney AH. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer Res. 1994 Feb;54(3):701-708.
  61. Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Souza MG, Silva ML, Filho AA, Martins CH, Crotti AE, Pauletti PM, Groppo M, et al. Antimicrobial activity of tosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol. Chem Biodivers 2010 Jul;7(7):1835-1840.
  62. Parolia A, Thomas MS, Kundabala M, Mohan M. Propolis and its potential uses in oral health. Int J Med Sci 2010 Jul;2(7): 210-215.
  63. Oncag O, Cogulu D, Uzel A, Sorkun K. Efficacy of propolis as an intracanal medicament against Enerococcus faecalis. Gen Dent 2006 Sep-Oct:54(5):319-322.
  64. Martin MP, Pileggi R. A quantitative analysis of propolis: a promising new storage media following avulsion. Dent Traumatol 2004 Apr:20(2):85-89.
  65. Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, Gonzalez R, Tolon Z. Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1989 Feb;25(1):103-107.
  66. Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Schiavini MS, Nakamura CV, Filho BPD. An evaluation of antibacterial activities of Psidium guajava. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2005 May;48(3):4229-4230.
  67. Sanda KA, Grema HA, Geidam YA, Bukar-Kolo YM. Pharmacological aspects of Psidium guajava: an update. Int J Pharmacol 2011 May;7:316-324.
  68. Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS. Punica grantum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6(2):79-92.
  69. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, Pereira Mdo S, Higino JS, Peixoto MH. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of punica granatum linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C albicans. Braz Dent J 2006;17(3): 223-227.
  70. Prasad D, Kunnaiah R. Punica granatum: a review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014 Jul;18(4):428-432.
  71. Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Baissac Y, Ribes G. Chemistry and pharmacology of fenugreek. In: Herbs, botanicals and teas. Mazza G, Oomah BD, editors. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Technomic Pub. Co; 2000. p. 107-129.
  72. Acharya SN, Basu SK, Thomas JE. Methods for the improvement of plant medicinal properties with particular reference to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: Acharya SN, Thomas JE, editors. Advances in medicinal plant research. Kerala, India: Research Signpost; 2007b p. 491-412.
  73. Al-Habori M, Raman A. Pharmacological properties in fenugreek. - In: Petropoulos GA, editor. The genus trigonella. 1st ed. London and New York: Taylor and Francis 2002. p. 163-182.
  74. Saini P, Al-Shibani N, Sun J, Zhang W, Song F, Gregson KS, Windsor LJ. Effects of calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts. Homeopathy 2012 Apr;101(2):92-98.
  75. Khairnar MS, Pawar B, Marawar PPA. Evaluation of calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013 Nov-Dec;17(6):741-747.
  76. Chakraborthy GS. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of calendula officinalis Linn. J Herb Med Toxicol 2008 Jun;2(2):65–66.
  77. Zilda CG, Claudia MR, Sandra RF. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from calendula officinalis L growing in Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2008;39(1):61-63.
  78. Bussadori SK, Castro LC, Galvão AC. Papain gel: a new chemo-mechanical caries removal agent. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005 Winter;30(2):115-119.
  79. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
  80. Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
  81. Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
  82. Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
  83. Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.