International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2012 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Mind the Gap: The Platform Switching Concept

Poojya Ramdev

Citation Information : Ramdev P. Mind the Gap: The Platform Switching Concept. Int J Oral Implantol Clin Res 2012; 3 (3):130-132.

DOI: 10.5005/JP-Journals-10012-1080

License: CC BY-ND 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

After exposing a submerged implant to the oral environment, bone loss occurs downwards along the implant body and stops at some predefined position. A current area of hot debate is the significance of the implant abutment interface and its influence on crestal bone level in relation to the first thread. In recent years, the microgap which exists at the connection between the implant body and the restorative abutment has been implicated. Recently, it has been suggested that the presence and position of the microgap may not be the principal cause of bone resorption phenomenon, but instead that it is due to the relative diameters of the abutment and the implant platform. It appears desirable to incorporate features into implant design which reduce microleakage or limit its effects. A tapered implant abutment creates a microseal and the hermetic seal produced eliminates the microgap preventing the passage of bacteria. Hence platform switching may limit or confine the effect.


PDF Share
  1. Lazzara RJ, Porter SS. Platform switching: A new concept in implant dentistry for controlling postrestorative crestal bone levels. Int J Periodontics 2006:1:9-17.
  2. López-Marí L, Calvo-Guirado JL, Martín-Castellote B, Gomez- Moreno G, López-Marí M. Implant platform switching concept: An updated review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2009 Sep 1;14:450-54.
  3. Schrotenboer J, Tsao YP, Kinariwala V, Wang HL. Effect of microthreads and platform switching on crestal bone levels: A finite element analysis. J Periodontol 2008 Nov;79(11): 2166-72.
  4. Tabata LF, Rocha EP, Barão VA, Assunção WG. Platform switching: Biomechanical evaluation using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2011;26:482-91.
  5. Canullo L, Quaranta A, Teles RP. The microbiota associated with implants restored with platform switching: A preliminary report. J peridontol 2010 Mar;81(3):403-11.
  6. Canullo L, Iannello G, Netuschil L, Jepsen S. Platform switching and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid. Clin Oral Impl 2011;11:15-18.
  7. Prasad DK, Shetty M, Bansal N, Hegde C. Crestal bone preservation: A review of different approaches for successful implant therapy. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:317-23.
  8. Cimen H, Yengin E. Analyzing the effects of platform switching procedures on stresses in the bone and implant-abutment complex by 3-dimensional FEM analysis. J Oral Implantol 2012;38:21-26.
  9. Beaty K. The role of screws in implant systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Impl 1994;9(Spec Suppl):52-54.
  10. Binon PP. Evaluation of machining accuracy and consistency of selected implants, standard abutments and laboratory analogs. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8:162-78.
  11. Martin WC, Woody RD, Miller BH, Miller AW. Implant abutment screw rotations and preloads for four different screw materials and surfaces. J Prosthet Dent 2001 Jul;86:24-32.
  12. Sakaguchi RL, Sun T, Haack JE. External strain distribution on implant prosthetic components. J Dent Res 1994;73:232.
  13. Binon PP. The effect of implant/abutment hexagonal misfit on screw joint stability. Int J Prosthodont 1996;9:149-60.
  14. Ohrnell L, Hirsh JM, Ericsson L, Brånemark PI. Single tooth rehabilitation using osseointegration. A modified surgical and prosthodontic approach. Quintessence Int 1988;19:871-76.
  15. Jemt T, Lekholm U. Oral implant treatment in posterior partially edentulous jaws: A 5-year follow-up study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:635-40.
  16. Nevins M, Langer B. The successful application of osseointegrated implants to the posterior jaw: A long-term retrospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8: 428-32.
  17. English CE. Externally hexed implants, abutments and transfer devices: A comprehensive overview. Implant Dent 1992;1: 273-83.
  18. Kallus T, Bessing C. Loose gold screws frequently occur in full arch fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants after 5 years. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1994;9:169-78.
  19. Meng JC, Everts JE, Qian F, Gratton DG. Influence of connection geometry on dynamic micromotion at the implantabutment interface. Int J Prosthodont 2007:20;623-25.
  20. Binon PP. The spline implant: Design, engineering and evaluation. Int J Prosthodont 1996:9;419-33.
  21. Niznick G. The implant abutment connection: The key to prosthetic success. Compendium 1991 Dec;12(12):932-38.
  22. Barzilay I. Rotational accuracy of implant components for single-tooth, root-form implants. Dental Implantology Update 1991;2(1):5-7.
  23. Niznick GA. The Core-Vent™ implant system. The evolution of the osseointegration implant. Oral Health 1983;73:13-17.
  24. Niznick GA. The implant abutment connection: The key to prosthetic success. Compend Cont Educ Dent 1991;12:932-37.
  25. Krennmair G, Schmidinger S, Waldenberger O. Single-tooth replacement with the Frialit-2 system: A retrospective clinical analysis of 146 implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002;17:78-85.
  26. d’Hoedt B. Dentale implantate aus polykristalliner Aluminiumoxidkeramik: Einheilung und Langzeitergebnisse [thesis]. Tübingen, Germany: University of Tübingen, 1991.
  27. Tang CB, Liu SY, Zhou GX, Yu JH, Zhang GD, Bao YD, et al. Nonlinear finite element analysis of three implant-abutment interface designs. Int J Oral Sci 2012;4(2):101-08.
  28. Lan J, Xu X, Jiang G, Guan Y, Huang H, Liang J, et al. Threedimension finite element analyses of interior stress of two kinds of Replace implant. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2011;29:464-68.
  29. Ding TA, Woody RD, Higginbottom FL, Miller BH. Evaluation of the ITI Morse taper implant/abutment design with an internal modification. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;18:865-72.
  30. Misch CE, Misch-Dietsh F, Silc J, Barboza E, Cianciola LJ, Kazor C. Posterior implant single-tooth replacement and status of adjacent teeth during a 10-year period: A retrospective report. J Periodontol 2008;79:2378-82.
  31. Hermann JS, Schoolfield JD, Schenk RK, Buser D, Cochran DL. Influence on the size of the microgap on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Periodontol 2001;72(10):1372-83.
  32. Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T, Andersson B. Design and surface characteristics of 13 commercially available oral implant systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8(6):622-33.
  33. Lavenus S, Louarn G, Layrolle P. Nanotechnology and dental implants. Int J Biomaterials 2010.
  34. Meng X, Kwon TY, Yang Y, Ong JL, Kim KH. Effects of applied voltages on hydroxyapatite coating of titanium by electrophoretic deposition. J Biomed Mat Res 2006;78(2): 373-77.
  35. Lee JJ, Rouhfar L, Beirne OR. Survival of hydroxypatite-coated implants: A meta-analytical review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000;58(12):1372-80.
  36. Ong JL, Bessho K, Cavin R, Carnes DL. Bone response to radio frequency sputtered calcium phosphate implants and titanium implants in vivo. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;59:184-90.
  37. Kim HW, Kim HE, Knowles JC. Flour-hydroxyapatite sol-gel coating on titanium substrate for hard tissue implants. Biomaterials 2004;25:3351-58.
  38. Ramires PA, Wennerberg A, Johansson CB, Cosentino F, Tundo S, Milella E. Biological behaviour of sol-gel coated dental implants. K Mater Sci Mater Med 2003;14:539-45.
  39. de Groot K, Geesink R, Klein CP, Serekian P. Plasma sprayed coatings of hydroxyapatite. J Biomed Mater Res 1987;21: 1375-81.
  40. Wikesjo UM, Sorensen RG, Kinoshita A, Wozney JM. RhBMP- 2/alphaBSM induces significant vertical alveolar ridge augmentation and dental implant osseointegration. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2002;4(4):174-82.
  41. Klokkevold PR, Johnson P, Dadgostari S, Caputo A, Davies JE, Nishimura RD. Early endosseous integration enhances by dual acid etching of titanium: A torque removal study in the rabbit. Clin Oral Implants Res 2001;12(4):350-57.
  42. Hacking SA, Harvey EJ, Tanzer M, Krygier JJ, Bobyn JD. Acidetched microtexture for enhancement of bone growth into porous-coated implants. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003;85(8): 1182-89.
  43. Guarnieri R, Aldini NN, et al. Medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (surgiplaster) in healing of a human extraction socket-histologic observation at 3 months: A case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20(4):636-41.
  44. Fiorellini JP, Nevins ML. Localized ridge augmentation/ preservation. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol 2003; 8(1):321-27.
  45. Misch CE. Contemporary implant dentistry (2nd ed). St Louis: Mosby Inc. 1999;462.
  46. Kim YK, Yun PY, Lee HJ, Ahn JY, Kim SG. Ridge preservation of the molar extraction socket using collagen sponge and xenogenic bone grafts. Implant Dent Aug 2011;20(4):267-72.
  47. Len Tolstunov, Jibin Chi. Alveolar ridge augmentation: comparison of two socket graft materials in implant cases. Compend Cont Edu, March 2011;32(2).
  48. Brunski JB. Forces on dental implants and interfacial stress transfer. In: Laney WR, Tolman DE (Eds). Tissue Integration in Oral, Orthopaedic and Maxillofacial Reconstruction. Chicago: Quintessence 1992:108-24.
  49. Brunski JB. Avoiding pitfalls in overloading and micromotions of intraosseous implants (Interview). Dent Implantol Update 1993;4(10):77-81.
  50. Tarnow D, Elian N, Fletcher P, et al. Vertical distance from the crest of bone to the height of the interproximal papilla between adjacent implants. J Periodontol 2003;74:1785-88.
  51. Ericsson J, Persson LG. Different types of implant-associated reactions in periodontal soft tissues. J Clin Periodont 1995; 22:255-61.
  52. Steinebrunner L, Wolfart S. In vitro evaluation of bacterial leakage along the implant of different implant abutment interface of different implant systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:875-81.
  53. Engelke W, Decco OA. In vitro evaluation of horizontal implant micromovement in bone specimen with contact endoscopy. Implant Dent 2004;13:88-94.
  54. Hermann J, Buser D, Schenk RK, Schoolfield JD. Influence of the size of the microgap on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged implants in canine mandible. J Periodontol 2001;72:1372-83.
  55. Hermann JS, Buser D, Schenk RK, et al. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants: A histometric evaluation of unloaded non-submerged and submerged implants in the canine mandible. J Peridontol 2000;71:1412-24.
  56. Wohrle PS. Nobel perfect esthetic scalloped implant: Rationale for a new design. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2003;5:64-73.
  57. Nentwig GH. Ankylos implant system: Concept and clinical application. J Oral Implantol 2004;30:171-77.
  58. Gardener D. Maintaining crestal bone around dental implants: Literature review and clinical technique. Dentistry Today 2006.
  59. Tonetti MS, Sanz M. Consensus report of session B. In: Lang N, Karring T, Lindhe J. Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. Berlin: Quintessence 1999:185-88.
  60. Huang MT, Ho CT, Wang ZY, Ferraro T, Lou YR, Stauber K, Ma W, Georgiadis C, Laskin JD, Conney AH. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer Res. 1994 Feb;54(3):701-708.
  61. Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Souza MG, Silva ML, Filho AA, Martins CH, Crotti AE, Pauletti PM, Groppo M, et al. Antimicrobial activity of tosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol. Chem Biodivers 2010 Jul;7(7):1835-1840.
  62. Parolia A, Thomas MS, Kundabala M, Mohan M. Propolis and its potential uses in oral health. Int J Med Sci 2010 Jul;2(7): 210-215.
  63. Oncag O, Cogulu D, Uzel A, Sorkun K. Efficacy of propolis as an intracanal medicament against Enerococcus faecalis. Gen Dent 2006 Sep-Oct:54(5):319-322.
  64. Martin MP, Pileggi R. A quantitative analysis of propolis: a promising new storage media following avulsion. Dent Traumatol 2004 Apr:20(2):85-89.
  65. Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, Gonzalez R, Tolon Z. Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1989 Feb;25(1):103-107.
  66. Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Schiavini MS, Nakamura CV, Filho BPD. An evaluation of antibacterial activities of Psidium guajava. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2005 May;48(3):4229-4230.
  67. Sanda KA, Grema HA, Geidam YA, Bukar-Kolo YM. Pharmacological aspects of Psidium guajava: an update. Int J Pharmacol 2011 May;7:316-324.
  68. Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS. Punica grantum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6(2):79-92.
  69. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, Pereira Mdo S, Higino JS, Peixoto MH. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of punica granatum linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C albicans. Braz Dent J 2006;17(3): 223-227.
  70. Prasad D, Kunnaiah R. Punica granatum: a review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014 Jul;18(4):428-432.
  71. Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Baissac Y, Ribes G. Chemistry and pharmacology of fenugreek. In: Herbs, botanicals and teas. Mazza G, Oomah BD, editors. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Technomic Pub. Co; 2000. p. 107-129.
  72. Acharya SN, Basu SK, Thomas JE. Methods for the improvement of plant medicinal properties with particular reference to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). In: Acharya SN, Thomas JE, editors. Advances in medicinal plant research. Kerala, India: Research Signpost; 2007b p. 491-412.
  73. Al-Habori M, Raman A. Pharmacological properties in fenugreek. - In: Petropoulos GA, editor. The genus trigonella. 1st ed. London and New York: Taylor and Francis 2002. p. 163-182.
  74. Saini P, Al-Shibani N, Sun J, Zhang W, Song F, Gregson KS, Windsor LJ. Effects of calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts. Homeopathy 2012 Apr;101(2):92-98.
  75. Khairnar MS, Pawar B, Marawar PPA. Evaluation of calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013 Nov-Dec;17(6):741-747.
  76. Chakraborthy GS. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of calendula officinalis Linn. J Herb Med Toxicol 2008 Jun;2(2):65–66.
  77. Zilda CG, Claudia MR, Sandra RF. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from calendula officinalis L growing in Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2008;39(1):61-63.
  78. Bussadori SK, Castro LC, Galvão AC. Papain gel: a new chemo-mechanical caries removal agent. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005 Winter;30(2):115-119.
  79. Bertassoni LE, Marshall GW. Papain-gel degrades intact nonmineralized type I collagen fibrils. Scanning 2009 Nov- Dec;31(6):253-258.
  80. Moon SE, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergistic effect between clove oil and its major compounds and antibiotics against oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 2011 Sep;56(9):907-916.
  81. Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticumon, candida, aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-1462.
  82. Olajide OA, Makinde JM, Awe SO. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of nutmeg oil in rats and mice. Pharma Biol 2000;38(5):385-390.
  83. Thanoon SZ, Al-Refai AS, Kamal A. Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17(2): 393-399.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.